Motivated by previous observations that the usually applied $L_p$ norms
($p=1,2,infty$) do not capture the perceptual quality of adversarial examples
in image classification, we propose to replace these norms with the structural
similarity index (SSIM) measure, which was developed originally to measure the
perceptual similarity of images. Through extensive experiments with
adversarially trained classifiers for MNIST and CIFAR-10, we demonstrate that
our SSIM-constrained adversarial attacks can break state-of-the-art
adversarially trained classifiers and achieve similar or larger success rate
than the elastic net attack, while consistently providing adversarial images of
better perceptual quality. Utilizing SSIM to automatically identify and
disallow adversarial images of low quality, we evaluate the performance of
several defense schemes in a perceptually much more meaningful way than was
done previously in the literature.

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Author Of this post: <a href="">Muhammad Zaid Hameed</a>, <a href="">Andras Gyorgy</a>

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